Introduction to Balcony Decor

Introduction to Balcony Decor

Importance of Balcony Space in Urban Living

In the heart of bustling cities, balcony spaces offer a rare breath of fresh air. They serve as personal retreats amidst urban sprawl, crucial for relaxation and a touch of nature.

Overview of Balcony Decor Trends

Current trends in balcony decor blend functionality with style. From minimalist designs that maximize space to lush, plant-filled sanctuaries that bring the outdoors in, these trends cater to diverse tastes and needs. Incorporating elements like vertical gardens, multi-functional furniture, and ambient lighting can transform any balcony into a cozy, inviting extension of your home.

Planning Your Balcony Makeover

Planning Your Balcony Makeover

Assessing Your Space and Needs

Begin by evaluating the dimensions of your balcony. Understand its strengths—perhaps it offers a stunning view or receives ample sunlight. Consider its limitations, such as size constraints or privacy concerns. Reflect on how you want to use this space: Is it for dining, gardening, or relaxation? This initial assessment will guide your design choices, ensuring they enhance both functionality and aesthetics.

Setting a Budget for Decoration and Furnishing

  • Establish a clear budget early on. This will help you prioritize expenses and avoid overspending.
  • Invest in quality where it counts, such as durable outdoor furniture and weather-resistant decor.
  • Consider cost-effective solutions like DIY projects or multi-purpose items that serve more than one function.

With thoughtful planning and a strategic budget, your balcony can become a beautifully personalized extension of your living space, offering daily enjoyment and relaxation.

Benefits of Transforming Your Balcony

Benefits of Transforming Your Balcony

Enhancing Aesthetic Appeal

Transforming your balcony elevates the visual charm of your living space. A well-decorated balcony serves as a visual feast, blending colors, textures, and elements that reflect your personal style. This transformation not only pleases the eye but also creates a harmonious extension of your indoor environment.

Increasing Property Value

An aesthetically pleasing and functional balcony can significantly boost your property’s market value. Prospective buyers or renters often view such outdoor spaces as a premium feature, making your property stand out in the competitive real estate market.

Creating a Personal Retreat

  • Imagine a space where you can unwind, surrounded by plants and soft lights.
  • Your balcony can become this tranquil retreat, a private haven away from the hustle of daily life.
  • With comfortable seating and your favorite decor, this area becomes a perfect spot for relaxation or enjoying quiet moments.

Choosing a Theme for Your Balcony: Contemporary vs. Classic

Choosing a Theme for Your Balcony: Contemporary vs. Classic

Finding Your Style

Deciding between a contemporary or classic theme for your balcony sets the tone for your outdoor sanctuary. Contemporary designs often feature sleek, modern lines and a monochromatic color palette, emphasizing simplicity and open space. Classic styles, on the other hand, lean towards ornate details and a richer color scheme, creating a timeless and elegant atmosphere.

Color Schemes and Material Selection

  • For a contemporary look, consider neutral colors like gray, black, or white, complemented by materials such as metal and glass.
  • In classic designs, warmer tones paired with natural wood and wrought iron offer a sense of tradition and warmth.

Choosing the right theme, colors, and materials can transform your balcony into a delightful extension of your home, reflecting your personal taste and enhancing your living experience.

Practical Considerations Before Decorating

Practical Considerations Before Decorating

Weatherproofing and Durability

First and foremost, ensure your balcony decor withstands the elements. Opt for weather-resistant materials like treated wood, stainless steel, or all-weather wicker. These choices promise longevity and reduce maintenance worries, letting you enjoy your outdoor space regardless of the weather.

Balancing Functionality and Style

  • Strive for a balance that merges aesthetic appeal with practical use. Sleek, foldable furniture maximizes space without sacrificing style.
  • Choose decor that complements both the exterior facade of your building and the interior design of your home, creating a seamless transition between spaces.

Safety Measures and Regulations

Adherence to local safety codes is crucial. Ensure railings are secure and high enough to prevent accidents, and confirm that your design plans align with any building restrictions. Incorporating non-slip surfaces and adequate lighting can further enhance safety, making your balcony a secure place to relax and entertain.

Design Ideas for Balcony Decor: Transform Your Outdoor Space with Creative Touches

Luxury Balcony Ideas for the Discerning Homeowner

Imagine a sanctuary above the city, where luxury meets tranquility. Your balcony can be this place of escape. Begin with ceiling beams that cradle the sky, their silhouettes casting an elegant dance of light and shadow as dusk falls.

Next, curate a collection of high-end furnishings. Choose pieces that whisper of sophistication—plush seating in understated hues, complemented by the soft glow of ambient lighting. These are the makings of a space where every moment feels like a private gala under the stars.

Adorn your outdoor gallery with touches of finesse. Select decor that speaks to your soul, whether it be a striking sculpture or a designer planter. These are not mere objects, but conversations in form and elegance.

Focus on the sublime details. Glass balustrades slice the horizon into panoramic vistas, while white furnishings against the textures of nature craft a tableau of serene sophistication. Each choice is a note in the symphony of your luxurious retreat.

Consider these elements:

  • Architectural InterestIntroduce ceiling beams or intricate railings for a dramatic effect.
  • Elegant FurnishingsOpt for high-quality materials and timeless designs.
  • Decorative AccentsChoose pieces that resonate with your style.

Modern Balcony Ideas

Imagine stepping onto a balcony where every element exudes modern sophistication. Here, sleek lines and a minimalist approach are not just design choices—they’re a statement. Begin with a canvas of neutral hues; whites, grays, and the warmth of natural wood tones set the stage for a serene outdoor haven.

Choose furniture that embodies modern elegance. A slim-profiled lounge chair or a table with bold geometric shapes can anchor your space in the present. Introduce greenery with simple planters, their clean lines echoing the surrounding architecture.

As dusk falls, let discreet lighting fixtures cast a soft glow, transforming your balcony into an intimate nocturnal escape. For a touch of whimsy and comfort, a stylish hanging chair can be both a focal point and a cozy nook.

Strive for a harmonious balance, where textures and materials converge in a symphony of simplicity. This is not just an extension of your living space—it’s a modern retreat crafted for tranquility.

Maximize Your Small Balcony’s Potential

Unlock the charm of your compact balcony with smart, space-enhancing choices. Begin with clever furniture—foldable chairs and tables that morph with your needs, disappearing to free up space at a moment’s notice.

Go vertical. Embrace vertical gardening to introduce a tapestry of green without encroaching on your precious square footage. Wall-mounted planters or a trellis adorned with climbing vines can conjure a verdant oasis.

As dusk falls, let a constellation of string lights or sleek lamps bathe your balcony in a warm glow, crafting an alluring nook for twilight repose. For those who seek a cocoon of privacy, stylish folding screens are not just barriers but artful statements, enhancing your outdoor sanctuary’s allure.

Every touch, every detail, should meld function with beauty, ensuring your balcony is a bastion of tranquility, free from clutter.


Enchanting Wooden Balcony Designs

Step into a realm where the rustic charm of wood meets the tranquil whispers of nature. Begin with the foundation—a wooden floor that sets the stage for your outdoor sanctuary. From the rich, honeyed hues of teak to the deep, aromatic cedar, each plank is a testament to nature’s splendor.

Imagine a pergola, a lattice of beauty, casting dappled shadows below. It’s not just a source of shade but a canvas for climbing plants, intertwining with the wood in a verdant embrace. The right furniture completes the scene. Consider teak or eucalyptus pieces; they’re not just seating, they’re statements of enduring style.

Here, every sunrise with your coffee and every starlit gathering becomes a moment to cherish. These wooden balcony designs are more than decor; they’re an experience, a bridge between home and the heart of nature.

  • Choose Your Palette Opt for natural tones that blend seamlessly with the outdoors or bold stains that make a statement.
  • Maximize Comfort Select furniture with weather-resistant cushions for an added layer of luxury.
  • Accessorize Thoughtfully Add soft lighting and planters to enhance the ambiance of your wooden haven.

Glass Balcony Ideas

Transform your balcony into a serene retreat where the boundary between indoors and outdoors blurs. Glass railings are the epitome of elegance, offering vistas that stretch to the horizon, unmarred by obstructions. The magic of floor-to-ceiling windows lies in their ability to bathe your space in sunlight, expanding your living area into the natural world.

For the thrill-seekers, glass flooring beckons with its promise of a floating sensation, all while maintaining a sleek, modern look. Picture yourself, poised above the world, leaning on a barrier as clear as air, secure yet soaring – a reality made possible by Diaanenterprise’s impeccable designs.

Consider the fusion of glass and greenery, a Hangingoasis signature, crafting an almost mystical space. Qrailing’s systems marry safety with sophistication, ensuring peace of mind in style. Sea View Lifestyle brings the horizon into your home, while Utrechtbalcony defines urban chic with its minimalist approach.

These glass features not only captivate the eye but also add significant value to your abode. It’s about creating environments that resonate with contemporary elegance and provide a sanctuary of calm.

Balcony Conversion Ideas

Step onto your balcony and breathe in the potential. This space, often overlooked, is ripe for transformation into your personal sanctuary or a vibrant extension of your home. Whether it’s the soft glow of dawn that inspires your work or the tranquility of a private garden that soothes your soul, your balcony awaits its metamorphosis.

Picture this: a sleek home office that harnesses the morning’s energy, or a plush reading nook cradled by greenery and the city’s hum. For the urban gardener, a balcony becomes a canvas for botanical creativity and a source of homegrown delights.

Consider the allure of an enclosed balcony. Glass walls frame the outside world, creating a sunlit alcove for focused work or peaceful reading. Outfit this space with:

  • Functional Elegance – A streamlined desk paired with an ergonomic chair.
  • Literary Oasis – Bookshelves and comfortable seating beneath ambient lighting.

Each choice you make is a brushstroke in your balcony’s story, blending comfort with your personal aesthetic.

Balcony Design Ideas to Elevate Your Outdoor Space

Envision your balcony as a canvas awaiting your personal touch. Begin with an outdoor rug to define and warm the space, its vibrant patterns or soothing hues setting the tone for your outdoor retreat.

Next, immerse yourself in greenery. Whether it’s the privacy of lush foliage, the pop of floral colors, or the charm of a quaint herb garden, plants infuse life into your balcony. Select planters that complement your decor, crafting a green haven in the sky.

As dusk falls, let string lights weave a soft luminescence, transforming your balcony into an enchanting nook. Eclectic furniture pieces, each telling its own story, invite conversation and relaxation.

Your balcony, a seamless extension of your living space, merits the same design consideration as any room within your home. It’s a place to breathe, to dream, to savor the quiet moments amidst the everyday rush.

Balcony Lights Ideas

Envision a balcony bathed in a soft glow, a private nook in the night’s embrace. String lights dance above, a constellation within reach, setting the stage for whispered tales and laughter. LED lights paint your evening in hues of tranquility or passion, their energy-sipping brilliance a testament to modern ingenuity. And for the timeless souls, lamps offer their steady flame, a beacon for the lost art of unwinding with literature in hand.

Lighting shapes more than visibility; it sculpts the very essence of your outdoor haven. With a flicker, a space transforms—becoming a stage for life’s quiet moments or a gallery of nocturnal beauty.

  • String Lights: Drape them for a starlit canopy effect.
  • LED Options: Embrace a spectrum of colors to match your mood.
  • Lamps: Anchor your space with the warm glow of tradition.

Railings Balcony Ideas

Imagine stepping onto your balcony, greeted by a railing that not only ensures your safety but also elevates the space with its design. Glass railings, with their clean lines and transparent charm, invite the outside in, making them a perfect match for the modern dweller. Metal railings, robust and malleable, can be sculpted into anything from the ornate swirls of wrought iron to the sleek tension of steel cables.

For those who yearn for a touch of nature, wooden railings stand as a testament to timeless elegance, offering both warmth and a comforting solidity. Your choice of railing should not only reflect the character of your home but also the ambiance you wish to create—whether it’s a verdant urban hideaway or a fluid extension of your living space.

  • Glass: Amplifies natural light and preserves views.
  • Metal: Offers enduring strength and diverse design possibilities.
  • Wood: Brings organic warmth and a classic feel.

Choose a railing that resonates with your vision and enhances your balcony’s allure, making it a captivating haven.

Transform Your Rooftop into a Chic Urban Oasis

Step onto your rooftop and let it take your breath away. A verdant garden blooms around you, while the plush feel of artificial grass cushions your steps. Here’s how to craft this serene escape.

Begin with Botanicals – Introduce a rooftop garden. Choose planters that showcase both perennial favorites and seasonal blooms, ensuring a year-round tapestry of color.

Lay a Lush Carpet – Roll out top-notch artificial turf. It’s the green without the fuss, perfect for urban living.

Curate Comfort – Modular outdoor sofas offer versatile seating, ready to adapt to any social setting. Nestle in accent tables for your morning coffee or evening aperitif.

Textural Touches – Outdoor rugs and plush cushions add layers of comfort, inviting you to linger longer.

Light the Night – Fairy lights twinkle above, while solar-powered lanterns cast a soft glow, crafting an enchanting evening atmosphere.

These elements transform your rooftop into a sanctuary above the city’s hustle. It’s not just a space; it’s your personal retreat.

Beautiful Balcony Ideas

Step onto your balcony and into a personal haven, where every detail weaves together to create an enchanting outdoor sanctuary. Picture this: floral arrangements spilling over the railings, a riot of color that dances in the breeze. As dusk falls, string lights twinkle among the petals, casting a magical glow.

Imagine a nook with comfortable seating, plush cushions beckoning you to relax with a novel or engage in heartfelt talks beneath the stars. Each piece, from the chic decor to the stylish furniture, is selected to enhance this peaceful retreat. Whether enjoying a morning espresso or entertaining at dusk, these balcony designs offer a blend of beauty and serenity.

Let these visions guide you in transforming your balcony into a picturesque escape that resonates with tranquility and allure.

Stylish Balcony Ideas

Envision your balcony as a sanctuary of style, where every element reflects your taste for the contemporary. Begin with furniture that marries form and function—sleek hanging chairs that float above the floor, minimalist benches that speak of clean lines and uncluttered spaces.

Next, ground your outdoor haven with trendy decor. A geometric-patterned outdoor rug not only defines your area but also adds a touch of warmth. As dusk falls, let contemporary lamps and candles cast a soft glow, perfect for unwinding after a long day.

Greenery is non-negotiable. A collection of potted plants, artfully arranged at varying heights, breathes life into your vertical space. And for those impromptu gatherings, a chic bar cart stands ready to spark conversations and serve refreshments.

It’s the details that make the space uniquely yours. Vibrant cushions and throws beckon with bold prints, transforming your balcony into a fashionable oasis.

Balcony Door Designs: A Gateway to Aesthetics

Imagine a threshold that not only promises security and warmth but also whispers tales of beauty and charm. Balcony doors are that pivotal element, shaping the essence of your haven. Consider the sleek silhouette of sliding doors: a minimalist’s dream, they offer expansive views while conserving space, their smooth glide a silent ode to modernity.

Embrace the transformative magic of folding doors. With a gentle push, they concertina, blurring the lines between your cozy interior and the vibrant world beyond. Ideal for those who love to merge their spaces for gatherings or to bask in the luxury of openness.

And then, the timeless allure of glass doors. Whether sliding or swinging, they serve as a clear portal, framing the outdoors as a living artwork, mirroring your taste for the refined.

  • Sliding Doors: Maximize your view and natural light.
  • Folding Doors: Create a grand entrance to the outdoors.
  • Glass Doors: Blend transparency with style.

Each selection not only complements your space but elevates it, transforming your balcony into a statement of elegance and function.

Illuminate Your Balcony with Creative Lighting

Envision a balcony that twinkles with charm, a space where light dances and creates an atmosphere of wonder. String lights weave a spellbinding effect, their soft luminescence perfect for starlit conversations. Embrace the magic of LEDs, with their chameleon-like ability to reflect your mood—tranquil blues for calm repose or festive reds for joyous celebrations.

For a touch of elegance, consider classic lamps. They’re not just sources of light; they’re stylish accents that carve out a serene reading corner or a snug area to unwind. Lighting is not just functional—it’s transformative, shaping your balcony into a reflection of your unique taste and the allure of your home.

Whether it’s a vibrant party or a peaceful escape, the right lights are key. They’re not mere fixtures; they’re the brushstrokes in the art of ambiance. Let these ideas spark your creativity:

  • String Lights: Drape them for a whimsical effect.
  • LED Options: Play with colors to match the mood.
  • Lamps: Position them to blend utility with sophistication.

Balcony Railing Inspirations

Imagine stepping onto your balcony, greeted by a railing that’s not just a safety feature but a statement of style. Glass railings slice through the boundary between indoors and out, offering a crystal-clear panorama. They’re the epitome of modern elegance, perfect for those who crave an uninterrupted connection with the landscape.

For a touch of tradition with a modern twist, metal railings stand as sculptural masterpieces. Their strength is unmatched, and when molded into intricate patterns, they tell a story of timeless craftsmanship. Whether you lean towards the ornate or prefer the minimalist, metal is as versatile as your imagination.

Then there’s the natural allure of wood. It brings a sense of organic beauty, a nod to the classic balconies of yesteryear. Wood harmonizes with your outdoor space, offering a palette of textures and hues that invite a personal touch.

Choose your balcony railing with intention, as it frames your view and defines your home’s character. Will it whisper of minimalist chic or shout with bohemian flair? The materials you select are the essence of your balcony’s soul.

Consider the following to elevate your balcony’s appeal:

  • Seamless Sightlines Opt for glass to merge boundaries with the sky.
  • Durable Elegance Metal offers longevity and artistic flexibility.
  • Warmth and Texture Wood infuses a cozy, inviting atmosphere.

Let your balcony railing be more than a mere edge to your outdoor haven. Make it a reflection of your aesthetic, a blend of safety and style that endures through seasons. It’s not just about choosing a railing—it’s about crafting the perfect backdrop for your life’s moments.

Diverse Balcony Flooring: Elevating Outdoor Spaces

Step onto your balcony and let the flooring set the mood. Wooden decking whispers of nature’s splendor, its rich grains a testament to timeless elegance. It’s more than a floor—it’s a statement of style.

Artificial grass is a stroke of genius for the urban oasis. It offers a verdant touch with zero upkeep, inviting barefoot bliss all year round. Your balcony, an evergreen escape, awaits.

Consider tiles for a fusion of function and flair. They come in a kaleidoscope of patterns, each tile a durable, easy-to-clean masterpiece resistant to the whims of weather.

Your balcony floor isn’t just a surface; it’s the cornerstone of your outdoor sanctuary. It influences every choice, from the chaise lounge that cradles you to the table that hosts your evening feasts. Let it be the backdrop to a myriad of memories.

Transform Your Balcony into a Sanctuary of Comfort

Step onto your balcony and let tranquility envelop you. Here, every seat whispers an invitation to sink into serenity. Envision a sleek hanging chair, suspended like a modern art piece, cradling you above the city’s pulse. It’s not just seating—it’s a statement.

As dusk falls, your balcony transforms. Twilight beckons with built-in benches, their cushions soft under the stars. Lamps and candles flicker, setting the stage for intimate evenings wrapped in conversation.

Maximize a petite space with ingenious touches. Foldable chairs unfurl into welcoming perches, while ambient lighting casts a warm glow, crafting an oasis in the smallest of footprints. Here, solitude and social gatherings find their perfect venue.

Curate a balcony that mirrors your essence, where every outdoor moment becomes a cherished memory.

  • Seating Alchemy Blend form with function through chairs that fold, benches that beckon, and swings that soothe.
  • Lighting Magic Illuminate your haven with lights that dance, candles that flicker, and lamps that cast a soft glow.
  • Intimate Ambiance Create a nook for starlit soirees, where laughter and whispers mingle under the moon.

Balcony Decor Styles: A World of Atmospheres

Step onto your balcony and let the decor whisk you away to a different realm. Scandinavian simplicity breathes life with its monochrome palette, punctuated by lush greenery and soft textiles. It’s serenity personified, a haven of calm.

In stark contrast, the Mediterranean allure wraps you in warmth. Imagine terracotta pots, their herbs perfuming the air, and mosaic tiles that tell tales of the sun-kissed sea. It’s a space that celebrates the joy of leisure.

Crave something more urban? The industrial balcony is your canvas. Here, raw materials reign – think reclaimed wood and exposed metal, all set against the stark backdrop of concrete. It’s a statement of modernity, a nod to the cosmopolitan.

These styles transform your balcony into more than an outdoor space; they create a destination. A place where morning coffees and evening cocktails are savored in an ambiance that’s uniquely yours.

Whether your taste leans towards the understated or the bold, these decor styles ensure your balcony is an extension of your living space, a personal retreat that invites relaxation and reflection.

  • Scandinavian Minimalism: Embrace tranquility with a clean, muted color scheme.
  • Mediterranean Warmth: Bask in the glow of vibrant colors and aromatic plants.
  • Industrial Edge: Capture the essence of the city with sleek, industrial elements.

Each choice is a reflection of you, a testament to your style, and a celebration of open-air living.

In Closing

Transform your balcony into a personalized oasis that not only enhances your living space but also boosts your property’s value. By integrating current decor trends with functional design, you can create an inviting outdoor retreat tailored to your lifestyle and aesthetic preferences. From selecting the right themes and materials to considering practical aspects like weatherproofing and safety, every choice contributes to a harmonious and stylish extension of your home. Embrace these ideas to craft a balcony that offers daily enjoyment and a serene escape from the urban hustle, ultimately enriching your quality of life and home appeal.

  • Can I use an outdoor rug on my balcony, and how do I choose one?
    Yes, you can use an outdoor rug on your balcony, and it should be chosen based on size, material, and style that complements your decor. Make sure the rug is made from weather-resistant materials such as polypropylene or nylon, which are durable and easy to clean. The size should fit your seating area without overwhelming the space, and the style should match your overall balcony theme.
  • How can I choose a theme for my balcony decor?
    Select a theme for your balcony decor by considering your style, the architectural style of your home, and the atmosphere you want to create. If you prefer a beachy vibe, incorporate blues and sandy tones with seashells and driftwood, or for a modern look, use clean lines and a monochromatic color scheme. The theme should be a reflection of what makes you feel relaxed and at home.
  • How can I incorporate lighting into my balcony design?
    Incorporate lighting into your balcony design by using a combination of functional and ambient light sources such as wall sconces, lanterns, or solar-powered lights. Wall sconces or overhead lighting will provide the necessary illumination for activities, while lanterns, candles, or fairy lights can add a warm, inviting glow. Solar-powered lights are a great eco-friendly option that can help save on electricity costs.
  • How can I make my balcony pet-friendly while also keeping it stylish?
    Make your balcony pet-friendly and stylish by choosing durable, easy-to-clean furniture and adding pet-safe plants and accessories. Opt for furniture with washable covers and avoid delicate decor items that can be easily knocked over or chewed. Incorporate pet-friendly plants that are non-toxic to animals, and add a dedicated pet area with a stylish bed or a fun play structure.
  • How can I make my small balcony more functional?
    To maximize functionality in a small balcony, use foldable or multi-purpose furniture and vertical planters. Foldable chairs and tables can be tucked away when not in use, and vertical planters or wall-mounted shelves can help save floor space while still allowing you to display plants and decor.
  • What are some budget-friendly balcony decorating ideas?
    You can decorate your balcony on a budget by using items like outdoor rugs, potted plants, and string lights. Outdoor rugs add warmth and define the space, while potted plants bring in greenery and can be chosen based on the balcony's sunlight exposure. String lights create a cozy ambiance at night without breaking the bank.
  • What are some creative ways to display plants on my balcony?
    Display plants creatively on your balcony by using hanging planters, tiered shelves, or by creating a vertical garden. Hanging planters can be suspended from the ceiling or railing, saving floor space, while tiered shelves allow you to display multiple plants in a small footprint. A vertical garden can be achieved with wall-mounted planters or a trellis system, adding lushness and life to your outdoor space.
  • What are some tips for maintaining balcony decor in different seasons?
    To maintain balcony decor in different seasons, choose weather-resistant materials, cover or store furniture during extreme weather, and switch out decor elements seasonally. Materials like teak wood, powder-coated metal, and outdoor fabrics will endure various weather conditions, while using furniture covers or storing items during winter can prolong their life. Seasonal cushions, throws, and decor items can be rotated to reflect the current season and keep your balcony looking fresh.
  • What are some ways to create privacy on my balcony?
    Privacy on a balcony can be achieved with the use of outdoor curtains, privacy screens, or tall plants. Outdoor curtains can be drawn when needed and add a soft, decorative touch, while privacy screens are a more permanent solution that can also serve as a decor element. Tall plants, like bamboo or tall grasses, provide a natural and green barrier.
  • What type of furniture is best for a balcony?
    Weather-resistant furniture is best for a balcony to ensure durability against the elements. Materials like teak, aluminum, and all-weather wicker are great options that can withstand rain, sun, and wind. Additionally, consider the size of your balcony and choose furniture that fits comfortably without overcrowding the space.